Any information on transgender-The largest study involving transgender people is providing long-sought insights about their health

It is our mission to provide a safe and affirming environment where you can receive hormone therapy, as well ongoing primary and preventive care to address all of your health and wellness needs. Use of Health Topics. Last reviewed:. March Related Health Topics Frequently asked questions about transgender and non-conforming services.

Any information on transgender

Any information on transgender

Any information on transgender

Any information on transgender

Any information on transgender

While advocates continue working to remedy these Any information on transgender, change cannot come too soon for transgender people. These events are frequently organised by trans communities to build community, address human rights strugglesand create visibility. Being transgender is not Any information on transgender, is not a fad, and is not going away. Our fight for FULL equality continues — donate and help us achieve it! Archived from the original on 3 January They are known to be safe and effective. People can transition as children or as adults. Le Monde. Sex Discrimination Act Cth s 7B 2.

Sex offender monitoring. Pioneering project

Gender transition looks different for every person. Main article: Transgender rights in Canada. Main article: Transvestism. Translated by Hasegawa, K. One of its many concerns is that gay and lesbian studies and scholarship not remain focused on white culture, but rather emphasize the diversity of experience in gay and lesbian lives. Retrieved March 14, Radical History Review, Vol. Problems in the individual's Any information on transgender interactions or family transgenser have also been postulated as having some causal impact. The result can be extreme depression that requires medical treatment. Archived from the original on June 17, Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social Work. The tranagender to construct a penis is extremely complicated, and the resulting penis is not capable of a natural erection. Archived from the original on 10 July Gay and lesbian studies, although transgemder place in academia, have been strongly influenced by the political and cultural development of Any information on transgender and lesbian communities, especially in urban areas throughout the United States.

Giving everyone the opportunity to participate in sport, regardless of their sex or gender identity.

  • Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their sex assigned at birth.
  • Sure, children and teens love to test the boundaries that adults set for them.

Benita Arren was the third person to join an innovative study of transgender individuals in Belgium. Credit: Bea Uhart. Benita Arren wishes that the human body came with instructions. About a decade ago, Arren was struggling with inner conflict. Then in her forties, married with two children and busy with a job in Antwerp, Belgium, she found them resurfacing.

The masculine persona in her head — how she had long known herself to be — was falling away, leaving her feeling as though she had no personality at all. Hoping that she was experiencing a temporary condition, Arren sought out the closest thing she could find to a handbook for the human experience: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , a compendium of mental illness and neurological diversity used by psychiatrists.

It described what she was going through, but to her dismay, it indicated that these feelings were not going to change. By the time she walked in the door, she had learnt everything she could about the counselling she was required to take and the treatments she might anticipate if she decided to make the transition to live as a woman. He had just launched a study — the first of its kind — that would follow people such as Arren through their transition and for years afterwards.

Arren would be the third person to enrol. On a snowy day earlier this year, she returned to the hospital, as she does annually, to give blood and answer surveys. He is busy these days: the study has now reached 2, participants across 4 clinics in Europe. That has left scientists and physicians with little data about the long-term effects of such treatment on health, such as cancer susceptibility, or how the brain and body change as people transition both socially and medically.

ENIGI and a handful of other emerging studies could provide invaluable information. ENIGI and a few other studies hope to change that by providing data on the best treatments and outcomes. The research could also reveal some of the basic biology underlying differences among sexes. Tantalizing hints are already beginning to emerge about the respective roles of hormones and genetics in gender identity.

And findings are beginning to clarify the medical and psychological impacts of transitioning. The topic was not discussed. Nevertheless, he moved on to launch the ENIGI consortium in , at a time when things were starting to improve for transgender people in Europe. But patients at the hospital had all received different courses of treatment: physicians generally use their own judgement in choosing a hormone and dosage for each person. It can sometimes be hard to recruit transgender people to studies: a history of discrimination and exploitation has left many reluctant to trust researchers.

Like Arren, nearly everyone he asked to be part of the study said yes. In fact, limited resources have occasionally forced him to turn people away.

The cohort grew as taboos around being transgender started to recede in Belgium. In , a popular television presenter came out. The numbers mean that the ENIGI researchers can finally draw some significant conclusions about the effects of standard care. So far, hormone treatments seem to be safe, with few side effects. Tristana Woudstra, a year-old university student with waist-length curly hair, tells Defreyne that her hips hurt from the oestrogen treatment she began taking nine months ago.

The hospital sees participants every three months at first and eventually once per year, collecting data each time. After a consultation, participants typically have their blood taken.

Researchers track biological indicators, such as stress hormones and immune markers. Later, they collate these with other data, such as psychological examinations, brain scans and DNA sequences. Senne Misplon, a transgender man, describes his experience taking testosterone.

Collecting all of these different data gives the ENIGI researchers a comprehensive look at how treatment affects different people. The impacts are complex, Defreyne says, and can be difficult to parse from those associated with the psychological counselling and the personal growth that many experience. Giving cross-sex hormones to rodents can alter their sexual behaviour, but no one knows whether a rat thinks of itself as male or female. And lumping people with complex gender and sexual identities into large groups might mask subtle differences and conflate unrelated characteristics.

For instance, transgender men might be attracted to men, women or all genders, and might have differences in their brain activity and response to hormones as a result. Making matters worse, the terminology used in the literature can be confusing; uninformed authors often swap gender terms, especially in older publications.

People who transition early in life, for instance, might have different brain characteristics from those who transition later, owing to the way their brains are shaped by societal gender roles or biological factors, such as hormones during puberty. Researchers debate what kind of differences — if any — exist between male and female brains, and many such studies have been poorly interpreted.

But scientists who study gender issues think that the confusion could be partly the result of a simplistic view of sex and gender identity.

Sven Mueller is studying the effects of gender transition on mental health and well-being. For instance, some studies have found that men and women use different parts of their brains to rotate objects in their minds. Mueller, a psychologist by training, wants to know whether there are hormonal and neurological links between mental health and gender identity.

Societal acceptance and support can improve mental health, and although depression rates drop after treatment, the levels of depression and suicide are still above normal. At the very least, Mueller says, the findings could help to make mental-health professionals aware of the challenges that transgender people face.

In the examination room in Ghent, a year-old transgender man named Ewan is describing how his facial hair has grown since he last visited the clinic six months ago. Defreyne asks about his chest hair. Ewan was happy to enrol in the study, but has no personal interest in the scientific questions. They live in a village near Ghent with 5 dogs, 24 chinchillas and an assortment of other animals.

Dunya says she was never put off by Ewan being transgender. Ewan decided not to have other surgeries apart from his mastectomy. He says he is disturbed by the surgical process to create a penis. He also opted to keep his ovaries and uterus. Defreyne cautions that he should have regular cancer screenings — no one knows whether testosterone treatments will raise the risk of ovarian or uterine cancer over time. Ewan regularly travels to Ghent, where a team closely monitors his response to hormone therapy.

ENIGI and other studies hope to address health questions such as this, a tall order in a field with little research and few answers. Safer worries that, in the absence of controlled research studies, physicians are vulnerable to influence from anecdotes and single-patient case studies. Some of these will overplay the health risks, he says. The Endocrine Society, for example, warns doctors to consider a potential link between androgen hormone treatment and reproductive tract cancer — a risk that could be important to people such as Ewan.

But this link has not been proved in a controlled study. Different countries tend to use different hormone formulations, and some physicians use progesterone in addition to oestrogen, but the approaches have never been directly compared against one another. Other researchers are looking for ways to collect data on a large number of transgender individuals, such as mining health records. But because of inconsistencies in the terminology used by physicians and administrators, it can be tricky, says Vin Tangpricha, an endocrinologist at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia.

But such associations might not be meaningful — one way to identify causes is to do a prospective study like ENIGI. And such efforts are picking up. In , the NIH launched a prospective study of transgender adolescents. Questions of how — and when — to allow transgender youth to transition medically and socially are among the stickiest in the field.

A study involving 2, transgender people is starting to reveal the long-term effects of hormone treatment and gender transition. Mental health tends to rank highly among health concerns, along with HIV.

And yet transgender women have largely been excluded from studies on prophylactic HIV treatments, or have been erroneously lumped together with men who have sex with men. There are reasons to believe that high doses of oestrogen could affect how HIV works in the body and stymie common approaches to treating it, but no one has ever looked at the question explicitly. As the science picks up steam, however, some researchers worry that physicians might feel pressure to move new findings and observations into practice too quickly.

The cohort also only includes people seeking formal medical treatment, which often excludes sex workers and people who buy hormones from the black market. And the researchers do not yet have a study for people who identify as neither male nor female.

He often takes the long view, a necessity when conducting a study that could last several lifetimes. Its value to science might still take time to emerge, but for people such as Arren, the study has already brought some comfort. Today, she says she feels entirely female, but it took a long time to get that way. Heylens, G. Burke, S. Psychiatry Neurosci. Getahun, D. Download references. An essential round-up of science news, opinion and analysis, delivered to your inbox every weekday.

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The third goal is to challenge heterosexual norms that have been created throughout history. New York : Oxford University Press. Los Angeles:Alyson Publications, Archived from the original on January 25, Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their sex assigned at birth. Archived from the original PDF on October 8,

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Any information on transgender. Practicing Inclusion

Reliable estimates of prevalence for either males or females are not available. A mental health professional makes a diagnosis of gender identity disorder by taking a careful personal history.

Laboratory tests are neither available nor required to make a diagnosis of gender identity disorder. However, it is very important not to overlook a physical illness such as a tumor that might mimic or contribute to a psychological disorder. If there is any question that a physical problem might be the underlying cause of an apparent gender identity disorder, a mental health professional should recommend a complete physical examination by a medical doctor. Laboratory tests might be necessary as components of the physical evaluation.

Among adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as a stated desire to become a member of the other sex, frequent passing as a person of the other sex, a desire to live or be treated as the other sex, or the conviction that he or she has the typical feelings and reactions of the other sex. Among children, the disturbance is manifested by any of the following:.

Among adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics e.

One common form of treatment for gender identity disorder is psychotherapy. The initial aim of treatment is to help individuals function in their biologic sex roles to the greatest degree possible. Adults who have had severe gender identity disorder for many years sometimes request reassignment of their sex, or sex-change surgery. Before undertaking such surgery, they usually undergo hormone therapy to suppress same-sex characteristics and to accentuate other-sex characteristics.

For instance, the female hormone estrogen is given to males to make breasts grow, reduce facial hair, and widen hips. The male hormone testosterone is administered to females to suppress menstruation, deepen the voice, and increase body hair. Following the hormone treatments, pre-operative candidates are usually required to live in the cross-gender role for at least a year before surgery is performed.

Cross-dressing —Wearing clothing and other attire typically associated with the opposite sex. Transvestite —A person who derives sexual pleasure or gratification from dressing in clothing of the opposite sex. If gender identity disorder persists into adolescence, it tends to be chronic in nature. There may be periods of remission. Families, as well as the person with the disorder, need and appreciate both information and support.

Local and national support groups and informational services exist, and health care providers and mental health professionals can provide referrals. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Washington, D. Shorter Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. New York : Oxford University Press, Wilson, Josephine F. Biological Foundations of Human Behavior. New York : Harcourt, Green, R. Marks, I. Green, and D. Reiner, William G. Wylie, Kevan. Zucker, K. Beaulieu, S. Bradley, G.

Grimshaw, and A. American Academy of Family Physicians. Telephone: American Academy of Pediatrics. FAX: American Medical Association. State Street, Chicago, IL Fax: American Psychological Association. Phone: or World Professional Association for Transgender Health. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. October 22, Retrieved October 22, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

Gender identity disorder is a condition characterized by a persistent feeling of discomfort or inappropriateness concerning one's anatomic sex. The disorder typically begins in childhood with gender identity problems and is manifested in adolescence or adulthood by a person dressing in clothing appropriate for the desired gender, as opposed to one's birth gender. Gender identity and gender-appropriate behaviors are generally learned.

This learning first occurs at home and later outside the home. Some young boys occasionally exhibit behaviors that Western culture has traditionally labeled "feminine. In pathological cases, however, children deviate from the normal model of exploring masculine and feminine behaviors.

Such males frequently avoid playing with other boys, dress in girls' clothing, play predominantly with girls, try out cosmetics and wigs, and display stereotypically feminine gait, arm movements, and body gestures. Although much less common, some girls may similarly reject traditionally feminine roles and mannerisms in favor of masculine characteristics.

Some people with the disorder request sex-change or sex reassignment surgery. Persons with gender identity disorder frequently complain that they were born the wrong sex. People with gender identity disorder may try to hide their secondary sex characteristics. Many elect to take female hormones in an effort to enlarge their breasts. Males have a Y chromosome , in addition to a X chromosome , while females have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains a gene known as the testes determining factor.

This gene causes cells in an embryo to differentiate and develop male genitals. Embryos without the testes determining factor continue to develop undifferentiated as females. The newly formed male testes release significant quantities of male hormones during the third month of pregnancy, further enhancing male differentiation. This sudden surge of hormones occurs again in males sometime between the second and twelfth week after birth.

It is important to note that there is no corresponding feminizing hormonal surge sequence observed in females at this age. These facts provide the biological basis for gender identity disorder. Male hormonal surges must occur not only in sufficient amounts, but also during a short window of time to cause masculinization of the developing infant. If there is insufficient androgen, the hormone primarily responsible for masculinization, or the surge comes too early or too late, the developing infant may be incompletely masculinized.

Disruptions of hormonal surges may come from a variety of sources. A partial list includes a disorder in the mother's endocrine system, common maternal stress , or maternal medications or some other toxic substances yet to be identified. Recent post-mortem studies conducted on male-to-female transsexuals, non-transsexual men, and non-transsexual women show a significant difference in the volume of a portion of the hypothalamus that is essential for sexual behavior.

While further investigations are needed, these initial studies seem to confirm that one's sense of gender resides in the brain and that it may be chemically determined. In addition to biological factors, environmental conditions, such as socialization, seem to contribute to gender identity disorder. Social learning theory, for example, proposes that a combination of observational learning and different levels and forms of reinforcement by parents, family, and friends determine a child's sense of gender, which, in turn, leads to what society considers sex-appropriate or inappropriate behavior.

The subsequent development of unwanted secondary sex characteristics, especially in males, increases a person's anxiety and frustrations. In an effort to cope with their feelings, some men with gender identity disorder may engage in stereo-typical, or even super-masculine, activities.

They feel shame over their inability to control what society considers "perverse" activities. Sometimes people with gender identity disorder get married and have children without telling their spouse about their disorder. Typically, it is kept secret because they have the mistaken conviction that participation in marriage and parenting will eliminate or cure their gender identity problems.

With some justification, people with gender identity disorder fear being labeled "sick," and being rejected and abandoned by people they love. If an individual's gender identity disorder is profound, a lifestyle change such as occasional cross-dressing may be insufficient. Accurate estimates of prevalence for either males or females are not available.

He or she obtains the age of the patient and determines whether the patient's sexual attraction is to males, females, both, or neither. According to the clinician's handbook for diagnosing mental disorders, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition text revised DSM-IV-TR , the following criteria must be met to establish a diagnosis of gender identity disorder.

Among adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics request for hormones, surgery, or other procedures to alter sexual characteristics to simulate the other sex, for example or a belief that he or she was born the wrong sex. The earlier the intervention, the greater likelihood of success. Early intervention can lead to reduced levels of transsexual behavior later in life.

Following the hormone treatments, pre-operative candidates are usually required to live in the cross-gender role for approximately a year before surgery is performed.

However, adoption of characteristics and activities appropriate for one's birth sex is unlikely to occur. Providing gender-appropriate clothing and toys in infancy and early childhood is helpful in preventing or mitigating gender identity disorder. Avoiding derogatory comments about a child's toy, clothing, or activity preference reduces the potential for inadvertent psychic harm.

Fourth edition, text revised. State Street, Chicago , IL Fallon, L. Fleming " Gender identity disorder. Fleming "Gender identity disorder. Gay and lesbian studies are academic programs dedicated to the study of historical, cultural, social, and political issues of vital concern to lesbian, gay, and, increasingly, bisexual and transgendered individuals. The focus of such programs is on lesbian and gay lives and social institutions, as well as about homophobia and oppression related to sexual orientation.

Gay and lesbians studies programs have encouraged many traditional disciplines to reassess their theoretical and political grounding and to consider sexuality and sexual diversity as critical facts determining social behaviors and political structures.

The goals of gay and lesbian studies programs are as varied as the programs themselves. The general goals include discovering and recovering the history and culture of homosexuality and bringing homosexuality to the forefront of academic studies, away from being an unspeakable or untouchable subject. The existence of gay and lesbian studies programs helps to challenge the invisibility of homosexuality in society and to expose students to gay and lesbian oppression as it has existed historically.

Another goal of lesbian and gay studies is to explore the lives of lesbian and gay people through investigation of identity issues, experiences of oppression, and struggles for recognition. The programs seek to find a common understanding and language in which homosexuals and heterosexuals can better understand gay and lesbian lives.

Many programs have an activist agenda that includes such goals as critiquing and transforming the social, political, cultural, economic, ethnic, and gender situations that continue to oppress gay and lesbian people. In Jeffery Weeks, a professor of sociology at the University of London , identified five additional goals for gay and lesbian studies. The first is to find ways for society to learn to live with differences in sexual orientation and to provide a forum for discussing differences.

The second is to adopt political and cultural stances that work toward sexual justice, which involves seeking fairness and equity in the treatment of all sexual orientations. The third goal is to challenge heterosexual norms that have been created throughout history. By addressing the second and third goals, homosexuality can be validated and affirmed while heterosexual norms are questioned so that equality of sexual orientations can be reached.

The fourth goal is to question the existing body of knowledge related to sexual orientation, especially addressing who has the right to speak authoritatively on gay and lesbian issues. The fifth goal is to create spaces for debate, analysis, negotiations, disagreements, and finding common ground regarding issues of sexual orientation. Gay and lesbian studies emerged from the civil rights movement, yet the roots of this discipline stretch back to the middle of the twentieth century.

The Kinsey studies of human sexuality in the s and s challenged scientific assumptions related to sexuality and, by raising the visibility of homosexuality, provided a platform for gay and lesbian studies. Gay and lesbian studies, although taking place in academia, have been strongly influenced by the political and cultural development of gay and lesbian communities, especially in urban areas throughout the United States.

As the political and cultural environment within society changed during the latter half of the twentieth century, so too did the frameworks in which gay and lesbian intellectuals and scholars worked.

Additionally, the AIDS crisis in the s added yet another layer that helped mature gay and lesbian studies. CLAGS is the first and only university-based research center in the United States dedicated to the study of historical, cultural, and political issues of concern to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered individuals. Another way of understanding the historical development of gay and lesbian studies is to consider the focus of scholarly activity and its diversification during the last three decades of the twentieth century.

Jeffrey Escoffier, deputy director for policy and research of the Office of Gay and Lesbian Health in New York City, in identified several different interdisciplinary paradigms that arose during that period.

The first, "Search for Authenticity, — ," was formed by the Stonewall generation as an effort to encourage research and writing from gay liberation and feminist perspectives. For example, during this period the Gay Academic Union was formed in New York City with the goal of confronting homophobia in academia.

Although the union lasted only a short while, it did provide a forum for academics interested in issues related to sexual orientation and led to further organizing and eventually to program development. One of its many concerns is that gay and lesbian studies and scholarship not remain focused on white culture, but rather emphasize the diversity of experience in gay and lesbian lives.

The final paradigm, "The Pursuit of Signs: The Cultural Studies Paradigms, — present," builds on the social construction of identity paradigm to include all forms of texts, cultural codes, signifying practices, and modes of discourse that form attitudes toward homosexuality.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, gay and lesbian studies programs vary widely in terms of focus, structure, and connections with other academic units. There are few programs at small, private, rural liberal arts colleges. Others have expanded to include emphases on bisexuality, transgender issues, and queer theory. The majority of the lesbian and gay studies programs offer undergraduate minors or certificate programs.

Few institutions offer undergraduate majors or graduate degrees strictly in gay and lesbian studies. Some institutions offer undergraduate programs in which lesbian and gay studies can be combined with a traditional major e. Because lesbian and gay studies focuses on a group of subjects instead of a concept, it is difficult to place the field within a specific academic discipline.

Therefore, virtually all programs are interdisciplinary in nature, working with other departments on campus covering a wide span of disciplines including biology, anthropology, anatomy, cultural anthropology, English, literature, film and video, history, art history , political science , psychology, religion, sociology, ethnic studies, and women's studies.

It forces scholars to integrate the oftenfragmented disciplines into which the academic experience has been sorted. Scholarship and study in separate disciplines makes it easier to ignore diversity and complexity and allows important questions to go unasked, a few chosen issues to be raised, select individuals to be studied, and leaves a large portion of the lesbian and gay population ignored.

Interdisciplinarity reinforces the fact that no longer are there only the categories of heterosexual and homosexual, but that there are many variations in between. Interdisciplinary study encourages a constant questioning of the assumptions underlying theories that are being used and why they are being used.

Two growing areas under the rubric of lesbian and gay studies are lesbian studies as a self-contained unit and queer theory. There have been some efforts to separate lesbian studies from gay studies and women's studies because of concerns about sexism in gay studies and heterosexism and homophobia in women's studies. The argument is that lesbian oppression has been ignored and needs to be investigated from the perspective of multiple disciplines separate from gay studies.

Teresa de Lauretis is the theorist often credited with inaugurating the phrase. Queer theory expands the focus of lesbian and gay studies from socially constructed or essentialist identities to sexual practices and sexual representations. Queer theorists view sexuality along a continuum and question whether it is ever fixed at one point. Queer theory challenges all identity categories, such as heterosexual, homosexual, male, and female and analyzes the power imbalances that are inherent in them.

Carroll, Lynne, and Gilroy, Paula J. Corber, Robert J. Escoffier, Jeffrey. Henry L. Minton, Henry L. Namaste, Ki. Schuyf, Judith, and Sandfort, Theo. Theo Sandfort. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Weeks, Jeffrey. Transgender is an umbrella term that describes different ways in which people transgress the gender boundaries that are constituted within a society.

Groups encompassed by this term include people who have an atypical gender expression, sex, sexual identity, or gender identity. An understanding of transgender requires an awareness of the difference between the terms sex and gender — terms that often are conflated. Sex is a biological construct. While sex often is considered dichotomous, so that individuals are classified as male if they have a penis and as female if they have a vagina, intersexed persons are an exception to this dichotomy because they have features of both sexes Fausto-Sterling The debate about the treatment of intersexed infants whose sex organs do not appear traditionally male or female has been heated.

On one side, people feel that genital surgery should be performed early so that the infant has the genitalia of one sex and can be raised without confusion about their sexual identity — that is, without confusion about how they understand and label their own sex. On the other side, organizations of intersexed people, such as the Intersex Society of North America , have protested this practice on the grounds that the sex assigned to the child in surgery may not correspond with their sexual identity as they mature.

Instead, they argue that intersexed children should be raised with their geni-talia unaltered until they are old enough to determine if they would like genital surgery and, if so, to select which sex is a better fit for them.

Unlike sex, gender is a social construct. Within social groups, sets of traits are linked together come to form genders, such as masculinity and femininity , through repeated performance and symbolism. The set of traits may depend upon the culture and time, such that enacting femininity in one country may appear different from doing so within another country or within another era.

While many cultures recognize two genders attributed to male or female physical sexes, other cultures have formed genders that are based upon a combination of the sexes and personalities of individuals. When people fall outside the norms of gender transgression — that is, enacting traits that are attributed to the other sex — they may fall into one of the categories of transgender identity.

People who adopt gender expressions i. Transsexual people have a sexual identity that does not match their physical sex. While some desire sex-reassignment surgery so that their anatomy can match their sense of self, not all transsexuals want to change their bodies. Hormone therapy may be used as well, as a complement to surgery or independently, and is less costly.

To receive services, many clinics require that transsexual people first meet the Harry Benjamin Standards of Care Meyer et al. Transmen or FTM female-to-male and transwomen or MTF male-to-female are common labels to describe the sex of those who transition from one sex to the other. Individuals who are attracted to the other sex are heterosexual , to the same sex are homosexual, and to both sexes are bisexual.

While having a sexual orientation other than heterosexual does not necessitate a transgender sexual identity or gender expression, there are forms of gender or gender expression within some nonheterosexual communities that fall under a transgender rubric.

For instance, being in drag is slang that connotes appearing and acting, for entertainment purposes, in a way that is typical for the other sex — with drag queens being men emulating women and drag kings being women emulating men Volcano and Halberstam Within lesbian communities, terms like butch and femme describe the gender identities of women who display different sets of gendered traits. Although they often are misunderstood as mimicking heterosexual genders, these genders are composed of traits that do not fall neatly into masculine or feminine genders but have unique meanings within those communities Levitt and Hiestand There is debate within the psychological community on how to understand transgender.

A diagnosis for gender identity disorder remains listed in the edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association.

Many mental health professionals believe that this diagnosis should be abolished because it is based upon a false understanding of gender and that treatment should focus on creating supportive environments for transgender youth rather than pathologizing them Hiestand and Levitt At the same time, others believe that the diagnosis is necessary so people can obtain insurance coverage for treatments Brown and Rounsley , and still others persist in conceptualizing transgen-der as a mental disorder inherent to the individual.

Groups of transgender people have organized to fight for supportive legislation and medical and mental health treatments that meet their needs and respect diversity within gender experiences. Such organizations as the International Foundation for Gender Education and the National Center for Transgender Equality also work to educate the public about transgender issues and concerns.

Washington, DC: Author. Brown, Mildred L. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass. Docter, Richard F. Transvestism: A Survey of Cross-dressers. Archives of Sexual Behavior 26 6 : — Fausto-Sterling, Anne. New York : Basic Books. Feinberg, Leslie. Boston: Beacon Press. Herek, Gregory M. Respect the name a transgender person is currently using. If you happen to know a transgender person's birth name the name given to them when they were born, but which they no longer use , don't share it without that person's explicit permission.

If you're unsure which pronoun a person uses, listen first to the pronoun other people use when referring to that person. Someone who knows the person well will probably use the correct pronoun. If you must ask which pronoun the person uses, start with your own. For example, "Hi, I'm Alex and I use the pronouns he and him. What about you?

If you accidently use the wrong pronoun for someone, apologize quickly and sincerely, then move forward with intention. In , 27 transgender people were killed. Since January 1, , eight transgender women of color have been murdered. According to the " U. Transgender people, particularly transgender women of color, face shockingly high rates of murder, homelessness, and incarceration. If you are a media professional working on a story, please check out GLAAD's resources for covering transgender people in the media.

Learn about the work GLAAD does everyday to ensure transgender people are treated fairly in the media. This means that the correct use and recognition of one's pronouns are linked directly to recognition of their core identity. I appreciate AYTO because it depicts the process of becoming increasingly comfortable and confident in yourself. Skip to main content. Search form.

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Skip to main content. Issues Resources. Questionable Questions About Transgender Identity. September 2, Some transgender people are open to answering just about anything, while others may not want to share intimate details about their lives, especially outside of personal conversations with close friends. This guide is intended to help you decide whether or not a particular question is appropriate to ask a transgender person in your life.

It also has answers to specific questions you may have, along with thoughts on why transgender people may be uncomfortable if you ask them those questions directly. Curiosity is important, and a legitimate reason to have questions. On the other hand, sometimes we need information to respectfully interact with people. Take a moment to put yourself in the shoes of the person being asked a question. Even if you would be comfortable sharing that information, not everyone will feel the same way.

In fact, there are many different surgeries that transgender people may undergo. These include surgeries that:. Transgender people can have all, some or none of these surgeries. Like with any other medical treatment, different surgeries costs different amounts. And, when you ask about surgery, you are basically asking a person to describe their genitals to you, something typically out of bounds. Again, simply being curious is not the same as needing to know!

Hormones have a variety of effects, many of which are similar to the effects teenagers experience during puberty. Some of these changes are reversible and change back if someone stops taking hormones, and some are not reversible. But hormones do affect many characteristics that people typically rely on when deciding who looks like a man or a woman: for example, a transgender man on hormone therapy might grow a beard and chest hair, and may live his life being seen by everyone as a man regardless of whether he has had any surgeries.

The effects of hormones vary for each person, just like how non-transgender people experience different physical changes while going through puberty. For example, some non-transgender boys grow facial hair early on, and their facial hair might be thicker or thinner depending on their genetics. Much the same way, transgender men who take testosterone might grow thick or sparse facial hair and might grow it quickly or slowly, depending on their genetics and other physical characteristics.

Unlike hormone therapy, the effects of puberty blockers are reversible: if someone starts puberty blockers, the effects of puberty will kick in if they stop taking them. Puberty can have many lasting effects on the body. Estrogen can cause a person to develop breasts and round hips. For transgender teenagers, these changes can be difficult and even traumatic.

Some of these changes—such the broadening of shoulders caused by testosterone—are permanent, while others can only be changed through a series of often expensive surgeries. For that reason, many doctors prescribe puberty blockers also called inhibitors for transgender young people to delay the effects of puberty.

They are usually prescribed only after long decision-making process that involves the transgender youth, the parents, and a therapist or a medical team. Outside of transgender health, puberty blockers have been used for many years to treat young people with early onset puberty.

They are known to be safe and effective. Are children too young to know their gender? How can someone that young, sometimes as young as two or three, really know? Allowing a transgender child to express their true gender is not something taken lightly by parents, and is often done in conversation with doctors or therapists.

No, children are not too young to know their true gender. Asking a parent about how they raise their child can feel invasive or confrontational for the parent. Are transgender people confused or going through a phase? This is true whether or not that person is transgender. Likewise, transgender people exist around the world, in every society and culture.

The experience and emotions of transitioning are personal and often private. What was your birth name? Can I see photos of you from before you transitioned? Many transgender people are uncomfortable sharing personal details of their life from before they transitioned, including the name they were given at birth and photos or videos of what they looked like. This hesitation may come from memories of past harassment, hurtful comments, or physical violence. It may also come from feeling like they want to move away from those memories, and move forward as their true selves.

Similarly, some transgender people feel that these types of questions may suggest that they are somehow less than non-transgender people, or that the person asking the question is trying to dismiss or deny their true gender. What bathrooms to trans people use? What bathroom do you use?

Transgender people generally use the bathroom that matches the gender they live as. Some trans people prefer to use single-user restrooms or gender-neutral restrooms when available, as bathrooms can feel unsafe or uncomfortable for many transgender people. Likewise, sometimes transgender people need to make a case-by-case decision about their bathroom use based on safety or privacy.

Non-binary people should be permitted to use the restroom that they believe they will be safest in. Transgender people use the bathroom for the same reason as anyone else: to do their business and move on with their day. Questioning transgender people about bathrooms can make them feel uncomfortable or like they have to justify their identity and true self.

Do transgender people regret transitioning or change their minds? Do you regret transitioning? As such, it is extremely rare for transgender people to change their minds or regret transition.

How can you tell if someone is transgender? Are you transgender? The only way to tell for sure if someone is transgender is by having a conversation with them and them telling you. You usually cannot tell if someone is transgender from their appearance, their voice, or anything about their body. Many non-transgender people have physical features that might not conform to stereotypes about how men and women look: for example, some non-transgender women are taller and have broad shoulders, and some non-transgender men have a slight build and higher pitched voices.

For some people, asking if someone is transgender sounds like a comment about their appearance or bodily characteristics, which they may consider offensive regardless of whether they are transgender. A transgender woman is someone who was born a boy, but deeply understands herself to be a woman. Historically, drag has often been performed by men, often but not always gay men, who are not transgender.

These men may call themselves drag queens. Because of the challenges that transgender people—particularly transgender women—face when seeking employment, it is not uncommon to see transgender women performing in drag.

Some transgender women who perform in drag have begun referring to themselves as showgirls, in part to distinguish themselves from non-transgender men who may also perform in drag.

Calling a transgender woman a drag queen may be hurtful or insulting because it implies she is not actually a woman, and is simply playing a part or pretending to be a woman. Is being transgender a new thing? The experience of those whose deeply held sense of their gender does not match their body at birth has been documented for thousands of years across many cultures. Being transgender is not new, is not a fad, and is not going away. With whom do transgender people have sex? How do you have sex?

Just like with anyone else, no two transgender people will enjoy exactly the same thing, use their bodies in exactly the same way during sex, or have the exact same sexual desires. Likewise, some transgender people are comfortable having sex prior to transitioning, while some are not.

Transgender people are gay, lesbian, bisexual, asexual, straight, and every other sexual orientation. So a gay transgender man is a man who is primarily attracted to other men, and was thought to be female when he was born.

A straight transgender woman is a woman who is primarily attracted to men, and was thought to be male when she was born. Are you personally hoping to have sex with this transgender person? And, does it seem like they are interested in you?

If not, who they have sex with, or how they have sex, is probably none of your business. Transgender men are men, not masculine women. They might be straight and attracted to women, but they might not be. And transgender women are women, not feminine men, and they might or might not be attracted to men.

Any information on transgender

Any information on transgender