What problems are breast cancer-Breast cancer: Symptoms, causes, and treatment

However, you may have some long-term side effects. New side effects may occur months or even years after treatment ends. Talk with your health care provider about any health issues you have. Although some conditions such as early menopause cannot be reversed, the symptoms can be treated. Find a list of questions to ask your provider about breast cancer survivorship.

What problems are breast cancer

What problems are breast cancer

What problems are breast cancer

What problems are breast cancer

What problems are breast cancer

This matching service can help you find clinical trials for young women with breast cancer and clinical trials for fertility preservation. Monthly breast self-examination. But having one or Whta several breast cancer risk factors doesn't necessarily mean you'll develop breast What problems are breast cancer. There are two types of lobular carcinoma in situ: classic and pleomorphic. After pubertya woman's breast consists of fat, connective tissue, and thousands of lobules. July 24,

Pantie peeking. Introduction

A terminal duct excision is both diagnostic and, for discharges that turn out to have a benign cause, therapeutic. But What problems are breast cancer the fluid doesn't go away after a few days, your surgeon or breast care nurse will remove it using a small needle and syringe. For the missing item, see the original Strip texas hold facebook version of this publication. J R Soc Med. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Ductography for nipple discharge: no replacement for ductal excision. Breast pain alone is rarely a presenting symptom of cancer, and imaging studies should be reserved for use in women who fall within usual screening guidelines. The drains are usually long thin tubes attached to vacuum bottles. For example, abnormal menstrual bleeding, such as What problems are breast cancer or spotting after menopause or between periods, can be a symptom of uterine cancer. Fewer than 1 in pedicled back flaps fail. No histologic findings correlate with breast pain.

Breast cancer is rare in young women.

  • Breast cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often a major concern is facing cancer again.
  • There are fewer and fewer problems.
  • Breast cancer is rare in young women.

The main objective of this study was to identify the problems of Nepalese breast cancer survivors living in an urban area who had completed their treatment for at least 6 months. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the problems of breast cancer survivors who were registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group.

Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS version The mean age of the women at the time of enrollment was There was a significant relationship between severe psychological Nepalese breast cancer survivors were found to have multiple physical, psychological, and social problems and might require special attention during follow-up visits. Physical examination, mammography, and fine-needle aspiration are the commonly used diagnostic modalities of breast cancer in Nepal, and the choice of management modality varies from center to center.

After completion of the primary treatment breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor positive cancer is treated with systemic hormonal therapy. In Nepal, tamoxifen is the commonly used hormonal medicines irrespective of the menopausal status. However, post menopausal woman who can afford uses ideal medicines selective estrogen receptor modulator aromatase inhibitor as systemic therapy.

Due to advancement and availability of multidisciplinary treatment modalities, there has been substantial improvement in the survival rates of the breast cancer patients. Various studies have shown that the women with breast cancer who have received treatment successfully with adjuvant therapy chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted drug therapy, and radiation therapy might experience multiple physical and psychosocial problems.

In Nepal, there has been a significant advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, and there are many hospitals and cancer centers where different modalities of treatment are available. As a result of these advances, the number of patients surviving after breast cancer must have been increased. Thus, it is important for the patients, researchers, and clinicians and nurses to assess accurately the occurrence of different symptoms so as to plan optimal survivorship program to make transition of survivorship easier.

Assessment of problems can give a basis for the modification of the follow-up care and, thus, optimize healthcare during and after completion of the treatment. There has not been a single study to explore the problems faced by this group of population in Nepal.

Hence, this study was conducted to assess the different problems seen in breast cancer survivors who have completed the treatment at least 6 months ago. This was a cross-sectional study done among breast cancer survivors aged 25 years or above who had completed primary cancer treatment 6 months before and had not experienced relapse. The participants who were registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group were included in the study.

The Nepal Cancer Support Group is a not-for-profit nongovernment organization established in The list of women registered to the group was obtained, and they were interviewed from July to December All of the women were living in urban area of the country. A total of women registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group were identified. Of them, 51 women who met the inclusion criteria and who were approachable and who gave consent to participate were included in the study.

The eligibility criteria were women of age 25 years or above and who had completed the treatment at least 6 months before the study. Women who were pregnant, had a history of recurrent diseases at the time of the survey, had a history of hospitalization within the last 1 month before data collection, with metastatic disease, had severe cognitive or psychiatric difficulties, and severely ill women unable to give interview were excluded from the study.

The research instrument consisted of the demographic and treatment-related variables. The domains in BCPT include hot flashes, nausea, bladder control, vaginal problems, musculoskeletal pain, cognitive problems, weight problems, arm problems, fatigue, and sexual interest.

With this scale, the respondents were asked how much they were bothered by each symptom during the past 4 weeks. This scale exceeds the reliability value of 0. This is a multidimensional instrument with different subscale. This instrument has a well-documented reliability, validity, and internal consistency.

In this study, only three subscales with thirteen items related with marital 5 items , social 3 items , and psychosocial 5 items problems, which were not addressed by the BCPT scale, were used. The tool which is available in English version was first translated into Nepali language, which is the national language of Nepal by a unanimous translator.

Back translation of tool from Nepali to English was done to ensure that it gave the same meaning. Pretesting of the final tool was done in five breast cancer survivors.

Women registered at Nepal Cancer Support Groups were screened for the eligibility criteria, who were then followed up through phone calls.

Final screening was again done, and details of the study were explained. Only those women who were well motivated and interested were called at the hospital of their follow-up visit.

All women were interviewed by the principal investigator in a separate room of the OPD maintaining the privacy and confidentiality using the purposive sampling technique. After the completion of interview, the participants were allowed to ventilate their feelings and share their experiences with other women of the list.

The participants discussed the complaints and about the prosthesis they are using currently. Those who wished to participate were called to nearby cancer treating hospital of their follow-up visit of their convenience. The women who came for interview were those who were well motivated and interested. Therefore, only informed verbal consent was obtained. Information was collected on the separate room maintaining the privacy of each respondent.

The statistical analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version For the assessment of the relationship between selected demographic and clinical variables with problems, the data were checked first for normality test using Kolmogorov—Smirnov test. For the variables which were not normally distributed, nonparametric test Man—Whitney U-test was used to find the relationship of the clinical and demographic variables with different problems.

One hundred ninety-six breast cancer survivors registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group were approached, and records were reviewed and screened manually for eligibility criteria. Only survivors met the inclusion criteria. Of women, 35 could not be approached as they were far from the research setting. Of the remaining 85 women who responded the phone call, 3 were hospitalized in the previous 1 month and 5 were too ill to participate.

Twenty-three of the screened women rejected for the interview. Fifty-four women who expressed interest in the participation were interviewed. Among 54 responders, three had incomplete information and were excluded from the study and final analysis was done in 51 survivors [ Figure 1 ]. The mean age of the women at the time of the diagnosis and survey was Sixty-five percent of the women were not employed at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the women were currently receiving hormonal therapy.

Menopausal status by age group at the time of diagnosis and at the time of enrollment is shown in Table 2. The studied women had varying degree of symptoms and none of them were free from any symptom. For the analysis of the relationship of demographic- and treatment-related variables [ Table 4 ], the women who had undergone hysterectomy were excluded from the study. There was no difference in mean rank score between age and different problems such as fatigue, hot flashes, bladder control, sexual problems, and psychological and social problems.

Bladder control Women who had completed cancer treatment 6 months to 1 year had significantly higher mean rank score in psychological The mean rank score for problems such as fatigability, bladder control, and hot flashes was higher in women who were at 6 months to 1 year of their treatment completion. The women who were on hormonal therapy at the time of interview had higher mean rank score in hot flashes, night sweats, and fatigue; however, this could not elicit significant relationship.

This study was done to explore the physical and psychosocial problems faced by the breast cancer survivors. We have found that the women who have survived successful breast cancer treatment would face at least one of those problems. The mean number of symptoms per survivor in our study was 9. This is in congruent with previously published studies.

This was in support with the findings by Ganz et al. Our finding is similar to those mentioned by Ganz et al. In one of the studies done in Nepal, majority of surgery for breast cancer had undergone total mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection.

This finding is comparable to other studies,[ 24 ] in which breast cancer survivor had marked improvement in social and role functioning by 1 year post diagnosis as well as overall improvement of quality of life.

In early years of posttreatment, women might be having fear due to uncertainty about the effects of treatment modalities aggravating psychological symptoms.

As time passes, confidence level increases with amelioration of previously felt problems. One of the limitations of this study is the study design, which is a cross-sectional study. The second potential limitation is the representativeness of the sample. The participants are women who are the member of the Nepal Cancer Support Group and are motivated for participation in the study. Although we tried to involve all women, all of them were not accessible because either the phone number recorded was wrong or was changed.

The Nepal Cancer Support Group had prepared their own registries of the cancer patients who come to visit some of the renowned hospital government, public with the help of which the group of researchers were able to conduct this research. In addition, this is a direct face to face interview, in which women might not feel comfortable to explore and rate their problems, especially sex-related problems.

Although there are several limitations, this study provides some insight on the problems of breast cancer survivor of developing countries like Nepal.

This is the first study on breast cancer survivor in Nepal. The findings of this study can be useful to the clinicians and nurses so that they can concentrate on these symptoms and include it while assessing clients on their follow-up visit. It may be useful for nurses for planning continued psychological support to the survivors even after completion of the treatment.

The nurse can also organize and coordinate the meeting with counselors and psychologists, and the survivors could be engaged themselves in lifestyle modifications such as physical exercise, yoga, and meditation. Many women in the underdeveloped countries like Nepal might not feel comfortable to raise the issue of sexual problems unless they are encouraged, which can be ameliorated by continuous counseling and discussion with sharing ideas on alternative remedies.

We would like to acknowledge the cooperation provided by Sajani Manandhar, coordinator, the Preventive Oncology Department of Nepal Cancer Hospital for coordinating enrollment of the participants. In addition, we would like to appreciate the efforts of the members of Nepal Cancer Support Group, namely, Siddi Chand, Pramita Pokhrel, who helped in gathering the participants and counseling them at the end of data collection. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. Sushila Koirala 4 Department of Nursing, B. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 11; Accepted Aug 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify the problems of Nepalese breast cancer survivors living in an urban area who had completed their treatment for at least 6 months.

American College of Radiology. The evaluation of breast pain begins with a thorough history and a careful physical examination. It also lowers the risk of a second breast cancer. In the presence of a dominant breast mass, a normal mammogram should never be considered proof of the absence of breast cancer. Before beginning any therapy for breast pain, patients should be asked to document the frequency and severity of their pain on a daily basis for one menstrual cycle using a visual analog scale.

What problems are breast cancer

What problems are breast cancer. Nipple Discharge

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Problems of Breast Cancer Survivors Living in an Urban Area of Nepal

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Click here to return to the Medical News Today home page. Advances in screening and treatment for breast cancer have improved survival rates dramatically since The chance of any woman dying from breast cancer is around 1 in 38 2. The ACS estimate that , women will receive a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer, and 62, people will receive a diagnosis of noninvasive cancer in In the same year, the ACS report that 41, women will die as a result of breast cancer.

However, due to advances in treatment, death rates from breast cancer have been decreasing since Awareness of the symptoms and the need for screening are important ways of reducing the risk. In rare instances, breast cancer can also affect men, but this article will focus on breast cancer in women. Learn about breast cancer in men here. The first symptoms of breast cancer usually appear as an area of thickened tissue in the breast or a lump in the breast or an armpit.

However, women should visit a doctor for an examination if they notice a lump on the breast. After puberty , a woman's breast consists of fat, connective tissue, and thousands of lobules. These are tiny glands that produce milk for breastfeeding. Tiny tubes, or ducts, carry the milk toward the nipple. Cancer causes the cells to multiply uncontrollably.

They do not die at the usual point in their life cycle. This excessive cell growth causes cancer because the tumor uses nutrients and energy and deprives the cells around it. Breast cancer usually starts in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body.

It is possible to prevent some of these risk factors. The risk of breast cancer increases with age. At 20 years, the chance of developing breast cancer in the next decade is 0. By the age of 70 years, this figure goes up to 3. If a close relative has or has had breast cancer, a person's chance of developing breast cancer increases.

People can inherit these genes from their parents. TP53 is another gene with links to increased breast cancer risk. Having some types of noncancerous breast lump increases the chance of developing cancer later on. Examples include atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ. Extended exposure to estrogen appears to increase the risk of breast cancer.

This could be due to a person starting their periods earlier or entering menopause at a later than average age. Between these times, estrogen levels are higher. Breastfeeding, especially for over 1 year, appears to reduce the chance of developing breast cancer.

This is possibly due to the drop in estrogen exposure that follows pregnancy and breastfeeding. Women who become overweight or develop obesity after menopause may also have a higher chance of developing breast cancer, possibly due to increased estrogen levels. High sugar intake may also be a factor. A higher rate of regular alcohol consumption appears to play a role in breast cancer development. According to the National Cancer Institute NCI , studies have consistently found that women who consume alcohol have a higher risk of breast cancer than those who do not.

Those who drink moderate to heavy levels of alcohol have a higher risk than light drinkers. Undergoing radiation treatment for a different cancer may increase the risk of developing breast cancer later in life. According to the NCI, studies have shown that oral contraceptives may slightly increase the risk of breast cancer. According to the ACS, studies have found that hormone replacement therapy HRT , specifically estrogen-progesterone therapy EPT , is related to an increased risk of breast cancer.

A review found that women with cosmetic breast implants who received a diagnosis of breast cancer also had a higher risk of dying from the disease. This could be due to the implants masking cancer during screening or because the implants bring about changes in breast tissue.

However, a review published in Aesthetic Surgery Journal found that having cosmetic breast implant surgery did not increase the risk of breast cancer. Invasive breast cancer occurs when the cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or ducts and invade nearby tissue. This increases the chance of cancer spreading to other parts of the body. Noninvasive breast cancer develops when the cancer remains inside its place of origin and has not yet spread. However, these cells can sometimes progress to invasive breast cancer.

A doctor often diagnoses breast cancer as the result of routine screening or when a woman approaches her doctor after detecting symptoms. During the examination, the person may need to sit or stand with their arms in different positions, such as above their head or by their sides.

Mammogram: This is a type of X-ray that doctors commonly use during an initial breast cancer screening. It produces images that can help a doctor detect any lumps or abnormalities. However, mammography sometimes shows a suspicious area that turns out not to be cancer. Ultrasound: This scan uses sound waves to help a doctor differentiate between a solid mass and a fluid-filled cyst. A doctor may recommend an MRI as a follow-up to a mammogram or ultrasound.

Doctors sometimes use them as a screening tool for those at higher risk of breast cancer. This shows whether the cells are cancerous. If they are, a biopsy indicates which type of cancer has developed, including whether or not the cancer is hormone sensitive. If surgery is necessary, the type will depend on both the diagnosis and individual preference.

Types of surgery include:. Lumpectomy: This involves removing the tumor and a small amount of healthy tissue around it.

A lumpectomy can help prevent the spread of the cancer. This may be an option if the tumor is small and easy to separate from its surrounding tissue. Mastectomy: A simple mastectomy involves removing the lobules, ducts, fatty tissue, nipple, areola, and some skin. In some types, a surgeon will also remove the lymph nodes and muscle in the chest wall. Here, learn about the different types of mastectomy. Sentinel node biopsy: If breast cancer reaches the sentinel lymph nodes, which are the first nodes to which a cancer can spread, it can spread into other parts of the body through the lymphatic system.

If the doctor does not find cancer in the sentinel nodes, then it is usually not necessary to remove the remaining nodes. Axillary lymph node dissection: If a doctor finds cancer cells in the sentinel nodes, they may recommend removing several lymph nodes in the armpit. This can prevent the cancer from spreading. This can help a person cope with the psychological effects of breast removal. The surgeon can reconstruct the breast at the same time as performing a mastectomy or at a later date.

They may use a breast implant or tissue from another part of the body. A person may undergo radiation therapy around a month after surgery. Radiation involves targeting the tumor with controlled doses of radiation that kill any remaining cancer cells. A doctor may prescribe cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs to kill cancer cells if there is a high risk of recurrence or spread. When a person has chemotherapy after surgery, doctors call it adjuvant chemotherapy.

Sometimes, a doctor may choose to administer chemotherapy before surgery to shrink the tumor and make its removal easier. Doctors call this neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Doctors use hormone blocking therapy to prevent hormone sensitive breast cancers from returning after treatment. Hormone therapy may be used to treat estrogen receptor ER -positive and progesterone receptor PR -positive cancers. They usually administer hormone blocking therapy after surgery but might sometimes use it beforehand to shrink the tumor.

Hormone blocking therapy may be the only option for people who are not suitable candidates for surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy.

Doctors may recommend a person has hormone therapy for 5—10 years after surgery. However, the treatment will not affect cancers that are not sensitive to hormones. Treatments for breast and other cancers can have severe adverse effects. When deciding on a treatment, people should discuss the potential risks with a doctor and look at ways to minimize the side effects.

What problems are breast cancer

What problems are breast cancer