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Model chicks

Model chicks

Model chicks

Soon studies of the developing chick identified the three embryonic germ layers : ectodermmesoderm and endodermgiving rise to the field of embryology. Our work has also revealed that the shell-less chick embryo culture system can be used for studying glucose-induced malformations similar to those observed in mammalian embryos [ 14 ]. There are few reports on islet isolation from the chicken pancreas [ Model chicks39 Model chicks. In particular the chick can directly reflect the human condition, as shown in spinal cord repair or in chorioallantoic membrane wound healing [ 5 ]. Animal models of diabetes: a primer. Peripheral utilization of a glucose load after alloxan and Streptozotocin Mdel the rat and chicken: Model chicks comparison.

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In the egg industry, billions of day-old male chicks are killed each year the world over because they are not commercially profitable.

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In the egg industry, billions of day-old male chicks are killed each year the world over because they are not commercially profitable. Hens layed eggs, and once their productivity declined they were used as stewing hens, while male chicks were used for meat production. Today, however, with an increasing global population and a growing demand for eggs and poultry meat, the industry has responded by developing different breeds, with egg-laying breeds raised for egg production only, and others raised only for meat production.

As a result, male layer breed chicks are discarded because they do not lay eggs and are not considered suitable for meat production. However, concerns over animal welfare are growing in many developed countries, including Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the U. The killing of day-old male layer breed chicks has been criticized in public debates and increasingly in political discussions due to ethical concerns.

The egg industry has therefore been exploring this issue in order to find a suitable solution that benefits society and the industry itself. Currently, however, these alternatives are not use in practice. The majority of day-old layer cockerels are raised for meat production and only a small number is killed for animal feed.

After the sex of chicks is identified in the hatchery, healthy male layer chicks are sorted for meat production. Male chicks are raised like broilers, but require less protein and energy due to their slower growth rate. In response to this, the industry has developed special feed for male chicks containing optimal protein and energy, which is also cheaper than broiler fodder.

Male chicks are fed for 60 days to reach a weight of 0. The selling price for male chicken meat is higher than conventional broiler meat, yet still slightly cheaper than native breed chicken meat. Male chicken meat is predominantly used to make roast chicken, a traditional Thai dish served with papaya salad and steamed glutinous rice. Consumers in the Northern region prefer male chicks that weigh 1. Fully integrated poultry companies in Thailand have invested in the male chicken meat market by establishing brands, convenience stores and restaurants, such as Five Star Chicken owned by CPF and Kaiyang SF owned by SF Group to market their products.

In addition to the high demand for male chicken meat in Thailand, roast chicken dishes are now also in high demand in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and China, providing an opportunity for Thai companies and others to increase their investments by establishing production bases in these countries and expanding their markets.

The success of male chicken meat production in Thailand lies in the market, driven by high consumer demand, sound consumer perception and acceptance of the product.

Although European countries may still have smaller markets for male chicken meat products, production for domestic consumption and for export to Asian markets are possible opportunities. The case of male chicken meat production in Thailand shows that the egg industry could successfully replicate this alternative model for the use of day-old layer cockerels if there is enough of a market and sufficient consumer demand.

Following Thai practice could not only set an example for other egg-producing countries, but also make male layer chicks a valuable product. The slaughter of day-old layer breed cockerels is increasingly an animal rights issue. In Thailand, layer breed male chicks are raised to supply meat for traditional roast chicken, which commands a higher price than broiler meat.

Sakson Soisantes is a Ph. D candidate at the Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production, University of Vechta, and since has been conducting research into the sustainability of the German and Thai poultry industries. Storms disrupt production at two Tyson poultry plants.

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Model chicks

Model chicks

Model chicks

Model chicks

Model chicks. October 21, 2019

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Chicken as biological research model - Wikipedia

Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations.

Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing.

Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. The review focuses on the application of i chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, ii shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and iii chick chorioallantoic membrane CAM to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis.

Diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic disorder which has reached epidemic proportion all over the world. The focus of diabetes research is the unraveling of diabetes pathogenesis and the discovery of novel drugs which are able to stimulate or enhance insulin secretion, control hyperglycemia, and reduce the occurrence of secondary complications of the disease.

Many diabetic patients exhibit poor glycemic control, others fail to respond to the treatment, and some develop serious complications. The rising incidence of gestational diabetes across the industrialized world is largely paralleled by the increased prevalence of obesity.

Simultaneously, there has been a sharp increase in the risk of pregnancy complications related to the birth of macrosomic babies. The associated long-term complications of gestational diabetes indicate a future rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes and associated conditions in both the mother and her affected offspring [ 2 ].

A wide range of mammalian models has been inbred for many generations by selecting for hyperglycemia. Among them are the non-obese diabetic NOD mouse and the BioBreeding BB rat, which spontaneously develop the disease with similarities to human type 1 diabetes. These models are routinely used as mammalian models for studying human type 1 diabetes. The Goto Kakizaki GK rat is developed by the selective breeding of Wistar rats with the highest blood glucose over many generations.

These rats develop relatively stable hyperglycemia in adult life. Fasting blood glucose is only mildly elevated, but rises on challenge with glucose. Both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion are present. This model is used for the study of human type 2 diabetes. Virus or chemically induced diabetic animals have also been developed to study different aspects of diabetes.

Pregnant mammals and isolated islets from various species of mammals have formed effective in vivo and in vitro models for understanding the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes and for screening hypoglycemia, respectively [ 3 , 4 ]. Today, animal experimentation is often contentious and subject to legal and ethical restrictions that vary throughout the world.

Alternatives to mammalian models could facilitate experiments. Beside mammals, poultry is used as a model for studying atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cholesterol metabolism. Poultry is also used in bone development, pathology, and surgical studies. These models have made a tremendous progress in biomedical research. In particular the chick can directly reflect the human condition, as shown in spinal cord repair or in chorioallantoic membrane wound healing [ 5 ].

Therefore, it is able to act as an in vivo model for studying repair process. Based on these findings, the chick can be considered as a model for regenerative therapy [ 7 ]. Organ culture studies on glucose, glucagons, and tolbutamide stimulation of chick grainivorous bird endocrine pancreas have suggested similarities in avian and mammalian beta-cell insulin secretory mechanisms [ 8 - 10 ].

Reversal of experimental diabetes in mice by embryonic chick pancreatic transplants has also been reported [ 11 ]. However, its potential as a model for diabetes research has often been overlooked. Our work has also revealed that the shell-less chick embryo culture system can be used for studying glucose-induced malformations similar to those observed in mammalian embryos [ 14 ].

A : Dithiazone DTZ -stained functional islets isolated from the dorsal lobe of the pancreas of a days old chicken are suitable for screening for antidiabetic agents. B : Chick embryo shell-less culture model for studying glucose-induced malformations in mammalian embryos. C : Chick chorioallantoic membrane CAM as a model to study glucose-induced inhibition of angiogenesis. The aim of the present review is to discuss the potential of the chick as a model to assess specific aspects of diabetes research.

It is also intended to show how the chick model can be utilized to address hyperglycemia-related impairments affecting islets, embryo development, and angiogenesis. Therefore, this review can be regarded as a starting point for specific aspects of animal-based research into diabetes. Sedentary habits and obesity result in diminished sensitivity to glucose and insulin, and finally in insulin resistance.

Hepatic glucose production may continue even if plasma glucose and insulin are both elevated. Secondary complications of diabetes include diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Arteriosclerosis is accelerated by diabetes. Microangiopathy, macroangiopathy, diabetic angiopathy, diabetic foot disease, diabetic ketoacidosis, and dyslipidemia are further abnormalities occurring with progression of diabetes in mammals [ 17 ].

The combination of high levels of glucose and free fatty acids, normal to high levels of insulin, high glucagon levels, and insulin resistance in birds has indicated similarities between their normal condition and maturity onset diabetes in man [ 19 ].

The majority of reported cases of avian diabetes have occurred in small birds such as the parakeet and canary [ 18 ]. The clinical signs of diabetes in birds are similar to those in mammals and include polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss [ 20 ]. Reported etiologies include pancreatic neoplasia, pancreatitis, pancreatic atrophy, and idiopathy [ 21 , 22 ]. In avian species, it is glucagon overproduction that causes the blood-sugar level to rise, whereas insulin deficiency or insulin resistance is the cause of mammalian diabetes [ 23 ].

However, the relative importance of insulin and glucagon in glucose metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes in birds are incompletely understood [ 20 ]. Hummingbirds and many other migratory birds maintain very high glucose and elevated body fat as an adaptive trait without developing diabetes [ 24 - 26 ]. Hummingbirds can quickly enter into torpor, and reduce resting metabolic rates 10 fold. They combat kinetic disorders by maintaining close feedback between energy intake and energy expenditure.

Thus, this bird species may offer lessons for the prevention of diabetes and obesity [ 24 ]. In spite of these lifestyle and metabolic differences, similarities have been reported between avian and mammalian insulin secretory mechanisms [ 8 - 10 ], and the structure of insulin [ 8 - 10 , 30 ].

Unlike rodents which have two pre-proinsulin genes [ 30 ], humans and chickens have a single pre-proinsulin gene, indicating similarities in pre-pancreatic expression characteristics [ 31 ]. It has been also reported that the organization of the human genome is closer to that of the chicken than that of the mouse [ 32 ]. Diabetes is the manifestation of complex pathophysiological interactions between hyperglycemia, beta-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and endothelial cell dysfunction.

Experimental diabetic mammals and mammalian pancreatic islets have been routinely used for in vivo and in vitro studies with respect to different aspects of diabetes [ 33 - 37 ]. There are no reports on the use of isolated islets from other vertebrates for the same purpose. There are few reports on islet isolation from the chicken pancreas [ 38 , 39 ].

The chicken pancreas is an elongated, lobed gland, located in the duodenal loop, and characterized by three types of islets, namely A, B, and mixed islets. The light or B islets beta islets consist of beta-cells and alpha1-cells. The dark or A islets alpha islets consist predominantly of alpha2-cells and alpha1-cells, while mixed or 'mammalian type' islets are composed of numerous beta-cells and only a few alpha- and delta-cells.

High levels of normal blood glucose in birds and insufficient insulin response to glucose by islets from 4- to 6-week-old chicks have been reported [ 19 ]. However, our blood glucose measurements in embryonic chicks up to 15 days after hatching [ 12 ], and previous studies on metabolic hormone profile in embryonic and posthatch chicks [ 42 ], have shown a gradual increase in blood glucose levels [ 9 , 43 , 44 ].

Therefore, we examined glucose response and function of B islets isolated from day old chick pancreas [ 45 ]. This finding suggests that these islets could be used for screening of antidiabetic agents, as an alternative to mammalian islets [ 12 ]. Chick and human pancreatic islets are insensitive to the known diabetogen streptozotocin STZ [ 46 - 49 ].

Therefore, experimental diabetes in chicks must be provoked other than in mammals. We found that the stronger antioxidant defense mechanism and higher uric acid contents of chick islets counteract STZ-induced ROS generation and render chick islets insensitive to STZ [ 50 ]. Further studies are required to understand the insensitivity of human islets to STZ. Our comparative studies on STZ treatment in chick and mouse islets suggest that chick islets can be used as a model for diabetes research to confirm the role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in counteracting oxidative stress [ 50 ].

There are many studies on isolation and cryopreservation of mammalian islets [ 51 - 56 ], but reports on cryopreservation of chick islets are lacking. We attempted to cryopreserve isolated chick islets following an established protocol used for cryopreservation of mouse islets [ 57 ]. We found that it is possible to cryopreserve chick islets without losing viability and insulin secretory activity [ 13 ].

This finding confirms the usability of chick pancreatic B islets as an in vitro model for physiological and pharmacological studies in mammalian and poultry diabetes. Studies have also reported the effectiveness of xenogeneic embryonic tissue in the treatment of experimental diabetes in rats [ 11 ]. The biochemical and metabolic changes in the recipients suggested that embryonic transplants of 15 days old chick pancreases were able to significantly improve the hyperglycemic state of rats, for a prolonged period of time 18 months and without any immunosuppression.

Based on these findings, it is worth attempting transplantation of isolated islets from the chick pancreas days posthatch in experimental diabetic animals to examine whether it leads to diabetes reversal without immunosupression. Since the ratio of insulin to glucagon cells is decreased in the avian pancreas, the condition is similar to that in type 2 diabetes [ 65 ] Further experimentation with the chick pancreas is necessary to investigate the scenario existing in type 2 diabetes.

Chick embryo is easily accessible, has a well-established development pattern, and is isolated from maternal influences [ 66 ]. The easy availability of eggs and the rapid development of chick embryos has led to the development of various methods of chick embryo culture [ 67 , 68 ]. These include window technique [ 69 ], in vitro culturing of embryos on a glass ring in albumen [ 70 ], and ex ovo culture systems [ 71 - 75 ].

Since developing chick embryos are not considered to be animals for up to ten days of embryonic life [ 78 ], its use in experiments does not evoke serious ethical issues. Therefore, the chick embryo model, produced by various culture methods, has been routinely used as a model for developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, and immunology.

Teratogenic effects of high glucose and very high insulin on chick embryo have been documented. Given the inaccessibility of embryos in mammalian models, which limits in vivo experiments [ 80 ], studies have used neurulating chick embryos to document similarities between chick and mammals in the role of insulin in growth acceleration and differentiation during embryonic development [ 81 , 82 ].

These studies have shown that the neurulating chick embryo is an excellent alternative model to study endogenous insulin signaling and its contribution to early embryonic cell survival [ 81 , 82 ].

However, experimental failures and limited embryo growth have hampered the wide use of this chick embryo model. Gestational diabetes is known to increase the risk of congenital malformation and birth defects in offspring compared to the children of non-diabetic women. Malformations associated with diabetic pregnancy affect many major organ systems, such as the central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and musculoskeletal systems [ 83 ]. The infant of the diabetic mother has an increased risk for several neonatal complications, such as macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, polycythemia, and hyperbilirubinemia.

Studies in humans, exploring the mechanisms of these alterations, are limited by ethical reasons and by the multiplicity of uncontrolled variables which may modify the intrauterine environment and cause potential effects on congenital malformations [ 85 ].

Therefore, there is a need for appropriate animal models. This culture system is economical and highly reproducible.

Different diabetic malformations of mammalian gestational diabetes, such as embryonic dismorphogenesis, rotational defects, cardiovascular abnormalities, macrosomia, macrocephaly, and retarded growth could be observed using this system.

Model chicks

Model chicks