Family risk breast cancer-Breast Cancer Risk Factors: Family History

Women with close relatives who've been diagnosed with breast cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease. If you've had one first-degree female relative sister, mother, daughter diagnosed with breast cancer, your risk is doubled. If two first-degree relatives have been diagnosed, your risk is 5 times higher than average. If your brother or father have been diagnosed with breast cancer, your risk is higher, though researchers aren't sure how much higher. In some cases, a strong family history of breast cancer is linked to having an abnormal gene associated with a high risk of breast cancer, such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene.

Family risk breast cancer

Family risk breast cancer

Family risk breast cancer

Family risk breast cancer

Lifestyle factors. Mutated Family risk breast cancer of these genes can lead to abnormal cell growth, which can lead to cancer. Know what is normal for Gorgeous nude blondes and see a health care provider if you notice any of these breast changes see images : Lump, hard knot or thickening inside the breast or underarm area Swelling, warmth, redness or darkening of the breast Change in the size or shape of the breast Dimpling or puckering of the skin Itchy, scaly sore or rash on the nipple Pulling in of the nipple rjsk other parts of the breast Nipple cancr that starts suddenly New pain in one spot that doesn't go away 4. Cox D. Ann Oncol. A method to detect excess risk acncer disease in structured data: cancer in relatives of retinoblastoma patients.

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Screening Tests. Does the Family risk breast cancer have a mutation in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, or a diagnosis of a genetic syndrome that may be associated with elevated risk Family risk breast cancer breast cancer? Back to top 7. Legislative History. Committees of Interest. A woman who has a first-degree female relative with breast cancer has about twice the risk of a woman without this family history [ ]. What Is Cancer? Side Effects of Cancer Treatment. A to Z List of Cancer Drugs. If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer yourself, you can speak to a member of your specialist breast care team who will be able to refer you to a specialist family history clinic or a regional genetics centre if appropriate. Being a woman and getting older are the main risk factors for breast cancer. Global Cancer Research. Image of.

This increased risk may be due to genetic factors known and unknown , shared lifestyle factors or other family traits.

  • A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease, such as cancer.
  • Women with close relatives who've been diagnosed with breast cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease.

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging.

The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you need medical advice, you can look for doctors or other healthcare professionals who have experience with this disease. You may find these specialists through advocacy organizations, clinical trials, or articles published in medical journals.

They may be able to refer you to someone they know through conferences or research efforts. Some specialists may be willing to consult with you or your local doctors over the phone or by email if you can't travel to them for care. We also encourage you to explore the rest of this page to find resources that can help you find specialists. Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment.

This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved. Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services.

Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD. Living with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Questions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know. National Institutes of Health.

Menu Search Home Diseases Familial breast cancer. You can help advance rare disease research! Not a rare disease. Other Names:. Summary Summary. Symptoms Symptoms. Showing of 3 View All. Breast cancer. We want to hear from you. Do you have updated information on this disease?

Cause Cause. They are due to random changes mutations that occur only in the cells of the breast. These clusters of breast cancer are likely due to a combination of gene s and other shared factors such as environment and lifestyle. In some of these families, the underlying genetic cause is not known. However, many of these cases are part of a hereditary cancer syndrome.

However, the risk associated with many of these genes is not well understood. Inheritance Inheritance. A person only needs a mutation in one copy of the responsible gene in each cell to have an increased risk for breast cancer. In some cases, a person with familial breast cancer inherits the mutation from a parent who has had or has familial breast cancer. Other cases may result from new de novo mutations in the gene.

Diagnosis Diagnosis. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Treatment Treatment. Management of familial breast cancer is generally focused on high-risk cancer screening to allow for early detection and treatment of cancer. Find a Specialist Find a Specialist. Healthcare Resources To find a medical professional who specializes in genetics, you can ask your doctor for a referral or you can search for one yourself.

Research Research. Clinical Research Resources ClinicalTrials. Click on the link to go to ClinicalTrials. We strongly recommend that you talk with a trusted healthcare provider before choosing to participate in any clinical study.

Organizations Organizations. Organizations Supporting this Disease. Bright Pink N. Clark St. The Susan G. Organizations Providing General Support. Do you know of an organization? Living With Living With. Financial Resources The Assistance Fund provides various services, including education and financial aid, to help patients with a chronic or serious illness cover the cost of FDA-approved medications.

Patients must be U. S citizens or permanent residents. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine. NHGRI is part of the National Institutes of Health and supports research on the structure and function of the human genome and its role in health and disease. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. Access to this database is free of charge.

PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Familial breast cancer. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic. Have a question? References References. National Cancer Institute. Shiovitz S, Korde LA. Genetics of breast cancer: a topic in evolution. Ann Oncol. Beyond BRCA: new hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes. Cancer Treat Rev. January ; 41 1 Bevers T.

Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. January ; Do you know of a review article?

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What to do if you're concerned about your family history 2. Edit Responses. Resources for News Media. However, it will be less accurate without your family history details. Your comments. Recent Public Laws.

Family risk breast cancer

Family risk breast cancer

Family risk breast cancer. Your feedback

Can Breast Cancer Be Prevented? Image of. Close Select A Hope Lodge. Donations Save Lives. Just Ask Candy. Your help makes breakthrough research, free rides to treatment, free places to stay near hospitals, and other critical patient services all possible.

No, Thanks. Although we don't know exactly why a family history of prostate cancer might increase breast cancer risk, some inherited gene mutations can increase risk of both cancers.

The breast cancer risk linked to family history may be due to inherited gene mutations or shared lifestyle factors or other family traits that increase risk. Families with a strong history of breast cancer often carry gene mutations. Such families may have:. Inherited gene mutations account for percent of breast cancers diagnosed in the U. There are special breast cancer screening guidelines for women with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

If you have a greater than 20 percent lifetime risk of breast cancer based mainly on your family history of breast or ovarian cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network NCCN recommends you get a [ ]:.

The NCCN recommends seeing a genetic counselor to discuss genetic testing as your strong family history of breast or ovarian may be due to an inherited gene mutation that increases the risk of these cancers. This medical care helps ensure if breast cancer does develop, it's caught early when the chances of survival are highest.

If you have a family history of breast or other type of cancer, your health care provider can help you understand how this impacts your risk of breast cancer. My Family Health History tool is a web-based tool that makes it easy for you to record and organize your family health history. It can help you gather information that's useful as you talk with your doctor or genetic counselor.

Some people may not know their family medical history. Risk assessment tools such as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Gail model can estimate your breast cancer risk without this information. However, it will be less accurate without your family history details.

Talking with your health care provider about other risk factors for breast cancer can help you learn about your risk even if you don't have information on your family medical history. Know what is normal for you and see a health care provider if you notice any of these breast changes see images :.

Breast Cancer Risk Factors You Cannot Change | Genetic Risk Factors

There was a 3. Using likelihood ratio tests, the best model for determining breast cancer risk due to family history was that combining FHS and age of relative at diagnosis. A family history score based on expected as well as observed breast cancers in a family can give greater risk discrimination on breast cancer incidence than conventional parameters based solely on cases in affected relatives. Our modeling suggests that a yet stronger predictor of risk might be a combination of this score and age at diagnosis in relatives.

The online version of this article doi These methods did not consider, however, the number of female relatives, and the person-years they have lived through, by age and calendar period, i. Cohort analyses of cardiovascular disease [ 26 ] and breast cancer mortality [ 27 ] have published risks in relation to a family history score that takes account of family structure.

The Generations Study GS is a prospective cohort study that began recruiting women aged 16 or older from the general population of the United Kingdom in and now comprises over , women who completed an extensive questionnaire and provided consent [ 28 ]. The first follow-up questionnaire was sent to GS participants about two and a half years after their entry to the study and subsequent follow-up questionnaires at intervals of about three and a half years.

The current analytic cohort is based on women who joined the study between June and June , inclusive. This left , participants who formed the analysis cohort. There were , recorded first-degree female relatives of participants in this analysis cohort. We calculated the expected number of breast cancers in each family cohort by multiplying the cumulative person-years in the family cohort, stratified by age and calendar year, by the corresponding national annual, age-specific breast cancer incidence rates, and then summing across all strata.

Published national breast cancer incidence rates for England and Wales combined were only available from to Rates from to were estimated by multiplying the age-specific breast cancer mortality rates in these years by the average age-specific ratio between published England and Wales incidence and mortality rates during — The average of the estimated incidence rates from to was used for years before , when age-specific breast cancer mortality rates were not available.

English national incidence rates were used for years after because combined England and Wales rates were not published after then. However, the difference will have been negligible since England contributes The total observed number of first primary breast cancers occurring in relatives in the family cohort was divided by the number of expected breast cancers, calculated as above, to produce a standardized incidence ratio SIR for that family.

We assessed risk of breast cancer in GS participants in relation to the FHS of their family, by calculating hazard ratios HR using Cox-proportional hazards regression with left truncation and right censoring, with age as the underlying time scale [ 29 ].

The FHS was ordered into six groups, and these groups were scored 0—5 for trend tests. Relative risks of breast cancer were adjusted for age at menarche, benign breast disease, oral contraceptive use, parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, age at menopause and menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy use, physical activity, pre- and post-menopausal body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking status, and socioeconomic status.

For the HR calculations, participant entry to risk began on the date of completion of the recruitment questionnaire, and exit from risk was on the date the participant was diagnosed with breast cancer, date of last follow-up questionnaire, emigration, loss to follow-up, or death, whichever occurred earliest up to 30th August To observe the impact of unknown vital status in sisters and daughters i.

For the main analyses, in situ diagnoses in participants were included together with invasive breast cancers, since ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS is widely considered to be a precursor of invasive breast cancer [ 30 ].

Sensitivity analyses were also conducted, however, restricted to invasive breast cancers. All statistical tests were two sided, and analyses were done using Stata version As of 30 August , of the , GS participants, 1, were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up and with in situ diagnoses, giving a total of who reported breast cancer, with Follow-up questionnaires were completed by The remaining participants had either died 0.

Total follow-up was , person-years, an average of 6. A slight majority Descriptive characteristics of the Generations Study cohort members in the United Kingdom and their family history of breast cancer. Eighty five percent of participants had no family member with breast cancer i. Participants who reported a relative diagnosed with breast cancer before age 45 had a relative risk of 2.

None of these measures showed as great a risk discrimination as the FHS. Family history is an important breast cancer risk factor, and one that can cause considerable anxiety to women [ 32 ]. It is therefore important to measure the risk associated with it with as much discriminatory power as possible, both to improve overall risk prediction and for advice and information for women, especially those with affected relatives.

However, it appears in principle that assessment of familial breast cancer risk should consider not only breast cancers observed in the family, but also the family size and age-structure and hence the expected number of cases if general population rates by age and calendar period prevailed in the family.

Such analyses to divide risk by family history score have been undertaken for coronary heart disease and hypertension [ 26 ], and breast cancer mortality [ 27 ], and for all-cancer incidence in relatives of retinoblastoma patients [ 35 ]. To the best of our knowledge, such scores have not been calculated for breast cancer incidence, although one study compared risk in women dichotomized as with or without a family history, allowing for age but not calendar period expectations [ 36 ], and family structure has been taken into account when estimating risk of BRCA1 and BRCA2 status [ 37 ].

The highest FHS group had a greater relative risk than any of the highest risk groups from conventional categorizations of family history. The combination of the age of relative at breast cancer diagnosis and FHS was the best fitted model.

Our study had insufficient cases for stable analysis of risk stratified by both FHS and age of relative at breast cancer diagnosis. As with any observational study, there were some limitations.

Another limitation was that vital status was only collected for parents in the baseline questionnaire. For this reason, some family expected numbers are likely to be slightly overestimated, and subsequently the FHS slightly underestimated. Therefore, estimated incidence rates were used for some calendar years for the majority of relatives when calculating the expected number of family breast cancers, since data on national rates do not exist before However, many of the person-years before were at young ages when breast cancer is uncommon.

Thus, any errors consequent on these national rate estimations are likely to have been slight, and anyway non-differential, and therefore unlikely to have influenced the relative risks materially. The FHS methodology could potentially be incorporated into risk prediction models for breast cancer, which currently use the number of first-degree relatives with breast cancer [ 14 , 41 — 46 ].

The data used to calculate the FHS in first-degree female relatives are easily obtainable from women, making this measure suitable for employment in clinical settings, using a family score algorithm incorporating cancer registration rates. Finally, our modeling of breast cancer risks in relation to the FHS combined with other family history categorizations suggests that the best predictor of risk if a sufficiently large dataset were available to validate it , might be a combination of FHS and age at diagnosis of breast cancers in relatives.

We thank Breast Cancer Now and The Institute of Cancer Research for support and funding of the Generations Study, and the study participants, study staff, and the doctors, nurses, and other health-care providers and health information sources who have contributed to the study.

Electronic supplementary material. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Published online Jun 3. Hannah R. Brewer , 1, 6 Michael E.

Jones , 1 Minouk J. Schoemaker , 1 Alan Ashworth , 2, 3, 4, 5 and Anthony J. Swerdlow 1, 2. Michael E. Minouk J. Anthony J.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received May 25; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Conclusions A family history score based on expected as well as observed breast cancers in a family can give greater risk discrimination on breast cancer incidence than conventional parameters based solely on cases in affected relatives.

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Keywords: Breast cancer, Risk factors, Cohort study, Family history. Methods The Generations Study GS is a prospective cohort study that began recruiting women aged 16 or older from the general population of the United Kingdom in and now comprises over , women who completed an extensive questionnaire and provided consent [ 28 ].

Assessment of breast cancer risk in participants in relation to family history We assessed risk of breast cancer in GS participants in relation to the FHS of their family, by calculating hazard ratios HR using Cox-proportional hazards regression with left truncation and right censoring, with age as the underlying time scale [ 29 ].

Open in a separate window. Family History Score No. Breast cancer in family a No. Discussion Family history is an important breast cancer risk factor, and one that can cause considerable anxiety to women [ 32 ]. Electronic supplementary material Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Acknowledgements We thank Breast Cancer Now and The Institute of Cancer Research for support and funding of the Generations Study, and the study participants, study staff, and the doctors, nurses, and other health-care providers and health information sources who have contributed to the study. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Footnotes Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi References 1. Global cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin. Established breast cancer risk factors and risk of intrinsic tumor subtypes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. Attributable risks for familial breast cancer by proband status and morphology: a nationwide epidemiologic study from Sweden. Int J Cancer. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58 women with breast cancer and women without the disease.

Risk factors for breast cancer according to family history of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. Colditz G, Rosner B. Am J Epidemiol. Risk factors for breast cancer according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status.

Breast Cancer Res. Menstrual and reproductive factors and breast cancer in women with family history of the disease.

Family risk breast cancer